Object name: NGC0096

Designation(s): ARP065, NGC0079, NGC0080, NGC0083, NGC0085, NGC0085B, NGC0086, NGC0093, NGC0094, NGC0096,

Arp 65/NGC 90 is located in the southwest corner of Andromeda. It is a member of a rather large group of galaxies. I find various names for it but none include all of the galaxies. The group about 240 million light-years from us give or take a few million. I\'ve noted the distances in the annotated image.

Arp 65 is rather near the center of the group. It is in Arp\'s atlas under the category: Spiral galaxies with small, high surface brightness companions. Arp\'s comment on this one reads: \"Position of open spiral. Comps. lie off projected ends of both spiral arms.\" That would indicate he is talking about galaxies beyond the extended arms. I see one to the southeast that seems in line with the southern arm. I see two for the other arm but they lie below the arm though there\'s a slight bend in the arm that might lead to the first and dimmer of the two. I found nothing in the literature on this subject. Note that both spiral arms are double.

The galaxy is classified as SAB(s)c pec by NED, SAB(s) by the NGC project and SAB(s)b? pec by Seligman. It is listed as being discovered by William Parsons by the NGC project in 1854, but Seligman credits his assistant R. J. Mitchell as finding it on October 26, 1854. I measure its size, thanks to its long drawn out arms as 200,000 light-years. So while its diameter is almost that of NGC 80 its mass is far less.

Some sources consider it as interacting with NGC 93 to the east. NED and the NGC Project classifies it as S? while Seligman says Sab? pec. The NGC project also credits it to William Parsons (Earl of Rosse) while Seligman again says R. J. Mitchell on the same night as he found Arp 65.

South of these is a star that is listed as NGC 91. Again there\'s confusion over who found it. NGC Project credits Lord Rosse in one place and Herman Schultz in another. Schultz was director of Uppsala observatory. I find no connection with Lord Rosse. But Seligman credits it to R. J. Mitchel on the same night as the other two. Since it is a mistake in the first place I suppose all this doesn\'t much matter.

There are 9 other NGC objects in this image. So here we go.

NGC 79 in the upper right corner is classified as E by NED, as E-So by the NGC project, and E0? by Seligman. All agree it was discovered by Guillaume Bigourdan on November 14. 1884.

NGC 80 is by far the most massive galaxy in the image. I measure it as a bit over 210,000 light-years across. NED and the NGC Project classifies it as SA0-: while Seligman says E/S0?. It was discovered by John Herschel on August 17, 1828.

NGC 81 is a tiny galaxy that NED doesn\'t even try to classify, the NGC project says simply S while Seligman says S0?. The latter seems about right to my eye. It was discovered by Ralph Copeland on November 15, 1873. He was one of Lord Rosse\'s assistants but I can\'t confirm he found this one while working for the Lord though he did find most of his NGC objects there.

NGC 83 is another rather large elliptical. NED classifies it as E but Seligman says (R)S0?. It was discovered by John Herschel the same night as NGC 80.

NGC 85/NGC 85A is listed by NED and the NGC Project as S0 but Seligman again disagrees saying SB0/a? It was discovered by Ralph Copeland the same night as he found NGC 81.

NGC 85B/IC 1546. I\'m sort of cheating here as the IC number is most likely its main number. Many catalogs don\'t recognize it under the NGC number though NED does so I\'m going with it. It is classified as S? by NED (The NGC Project doesn\'t recognize it as an NGC object) while Seligman recognizes it only under the IC number and classifies it as Sbc?. It was discovered by Stephane Javelle on November 20, 1897.

NGC 86 is classified by NED as Sbc, S? by the NGC Project and S0/a? by Seligman. Flip your three-sided coin on this one. It was discovered by Guillaume Bigourdan the same night as he found NGC 79, November 14, 1884.

NGC 94 is listed as S0 by NED and the NGC Project but as S0(s)a? by Seligman. It was discovered by Guillaume Bigourdan the same night as the others in this group but for NGC 96.

NGC 96 is not classified by NED, the NGC Project says S0 while Seligman says SB0? It too was discovered by Guillaume Bigourdan but on October 24, 1884.

Whew, that\'s 12 NGC objects in a 0.2 square degree field and I\'m not near the Virgo Cluster either. Details on other galaxies are in the annotated image when NED had redshift data.

This image dates back to September 2008 when my image processing software and skills were limited. I need to reprocess this one but for now, this will have to do.

Arp\'s image:

14\" LX200R @ f/10 L=4x10\' RGB=2x10\'x3, STL-11000XM, Paramount ME