Object name: NGC2385

Designation(s): NGC2385, NGC2375, NGC2378, NGC2379, NGC2385, NGC 2386, NGC2388, NGC2389, NGC2390, NGC2391, FGC0633,

The field is centered on NGC 2385, a Sb galaxy per NED and S? per the NGC project. The galaxy is about 200 million light-years distant in the constellation of Gemini. It has a nice find dust lane showing we are seeing it virtually edge on. There\'s a rather large halo of stars around it.

My real interest lies with NGC 2388 to its east and down slightly. It is a Luminous InfraRed Galaxy (LIRG) with a rather odd structure. Dust lanes are unusually red. The entire galaxy appears reddened by all the dust it has. NED classes it as S? while the NGC project says simply S. It too is about 200 million light-years away.

The very blue galaxy above it is NGC 2389. It has a rather complex arm structure that appears to come off the ends of a bar. But the NGC project classes it as Sc. NED does better saying SAB(rs)c. Both it and NGC 2388 have HII emission lines. Redshift puts it about 190 million light years distant. The difference from its companions is likely due to relative motion about their groups center of gravity rather than a real distance difference. In fact, Tully-Fisher measurements put it a bit over 200 million light-years away. Such measurements aren\'t available on the other two.

None of these three galaxies appear to be interacting though all seem disturbed in some way: Large faint halo of stars for 2385, Unusually heavy dust for 2388 and very complex, ill-defined arm structure for 2389.

Visual astronomy created the NGC catalog. This resulted in mistaken identity as visual observers would sometimes think they saw faint glows around stars that were more likely due to high haze, poor seeing or both. We have several examples in this image. NGC 2386 is a triple star while NGC 2390 and NGC 2391 are just single stars. So this NGC group contains three real galaxies and three mistakes. The group is cataloged as WBL 142 though often referred to as the NGC 2389 group being named for its brightest member.

Another designation for the group is HDCE 0444. This includes KUG 0724+341 at the very top of my image a west (right) of the other three. It is a very blue galaxy NED classifies as \"Spiral\". Its redshift puts it at 220 million light-years with no other measurements given. So it appears to be a true member of the group, just on the outskirts as we see it from our perspective.

To the lower right is another pair of galaxies. NGC 2379, an SA0 galaxy as NED sees it or S0 as the NGC project classes it. It is about 190 million light-years distant. So it is likely related to the others to its northeast but isn\'t officially a member of the group. In fact, it and the nearby spiral are considered part of the WBL 141 group even though the spiral has a very different redshift. The spiral is NGC 2375, classed as SB(s)b and SBb by the NGC project, has a redshift that puts it about 360 million light years distant. Nearly twice the distance to the others in the field. It has a small, high surface brightness companion on its arm. Arp had many such galaxies in his atlas, many so distant little detail was visible. Did he miss this one or omit it for some reason.

In many cases in Arp\'s atlas, the companion had no redshift measurement so it was impossible to verify it was a true companion and really was on or near the arm. This is no exception, unfortunately. In fact, the companion isn\'t even listed in NED! It could almost pass as a star in my image but the PSF is very wrong for a star and quite right for a galaxy when you look at the raw data. It is clearly a galaxy in the Sloan image as well. Yet NED never picked it up from the survey.

Another double star in the area was mistaken for a fuzzy object by visual observers and has the designation NGC 2378. Its discoverer was none other than Édouard Stephan of Stephan\'s Quintet fame. He didn\'t do so well with this observation. His description: \"Two stars, very faint and very close which, occasionally seem to be enveloped in a nearly imperceptible nebulosity.\"

The galaxy in the lower left corner is the edge on spiral FGC 0633/UGC 03879, classed as Sbc. Its redshift puts it about 230 million light years distant. Again likely part of the NGC 2389 group. Of the galaxies in the image with redshift data all but NGC 2375 appear to be part of a common group. Several other galaxies are seen at its western end but none are in NED. Even though the Sloan survey covered this field it, or maybe NED, picked up only some of the galaxies. I don\'t know why.

No other object in the image has redshift data. Though there are three asteroids.
(80481) 2000 AJ33 Mag 18.2
(155472) 1998 SY98 Mag 19.9
(223904) 2004 VK56 Mag 19.6

Conditions were rather poor for this image. Note the gaps in the asteroid trails where clouds pretty much blocked everything twice for a couple minutes. Still it came out better than my first try.

NGC 2375 was discovered by George Stoney on February 20, 1849.
NGC 2378 was discovered by Édouard Stephan on February 8, 1878.
NGC 2379 was discovered by John Herschel on March 6, 1828.
NGC 2385 and NGC 2388 was dicovered by William Herschel on February 4, 1793.
NGC 2386 was discovered by Lawrence Parsons on January 1, 1876 Could a hangover from New Years Eve explain his mistaking stars for a galaxy?
NGC 2389 was discovered by William Herschel on February 5, 1788.
NGC 2390 and 2391 were mistaken for galaxies by Robbert Ball on December 10, 1866.

14\" LX200R @ f/10, L=6x10\' RGB=2x10\'x3, STL-11000XM, Paramount ME