Object name: UGC11861

Designation(s): UGC11861, PGC67671,

UGC 11861/PGC 67671 is a very low surface brightness galaxy in Cepheus about 60 to 62 million light-years distant. The field is very poorly studied with only this galaxy having any distance data or much else for that matter. The galaxy has had two supernovae in it in the last 21 years. I have marked the location of both as neither appeared in a portion of the galaxy that had sufficient brightness for me to see stars in the area. This indicates the galaxy is heavily obscured. Its rather red color may be due to obscuring dust as well.

What drew me to this galaxy was its very odd arm structure, especially the somewhat blue, apparently detached, arm segment just above its more reasonable spiral structure. As with my images this summer the smoke from fires to my north and out in Colorado, the west coast and British Columbia took a tole on my image. How much blue I needed to add back was more than eXcalibrator could handle. At least its results were no better than my unadjusted image. I adjusted blue and green to give a good mix of star colors. Also, 16 Cephi that put a strong halo into the image is F5 so I adjust until that star (not its glare) was mostly blue-white in color. I was unable to find any color images of this field other than a very deep image of the \"Shark Nebula that shows it at low resolution. That image doesn\'t make it as red as my smoke damaged image would indicate. Still, if I push to that image\'s color then the general stars become way too blue.

I had to use a lot of data to try and piece this together. All that were of a density that could add something are included so there are 7 weak luminance images, 4 rather strong red images and 4 weak blue images. Only 2 green images were usable but that color is easy to adjust for so that wasn\'t a problem. This is one that I should put on the reshoot list.

My usual method of eliminating the large circular halo around bright stars with some blue color didn\'t work thanks to the dust. I just left it in as it didn\'t bother the galaxy and any attempt to remove it would be more noticeable than simply leaving it in.

The last few smoky images are showing smoke starting to coat my filters. I try and set the filter to H alpha when I shut down the camera as I use it least so if it gets hit by spiders, dust or something else, I can clean it at leisure. I failed and left the luminance filter exposed for several of the worst smoke days. That is causing some spikes, long and short on some stars. Due to the background dust in the image, I was unable to remove them without making the image worse so left them in this and a couple prior images. Several more are yet to be processed so I expect they too will have this issue. I\'ve since taken the camera off and cleaned the filters for images taken in September, assuming the smoke ever leaves.

14\" LX200R @ f/10, L=7x10\' RB=4x10\' G=2x10\', STL-11000XM, Paramount ME

Rick