Object name: ARP331

Designation(s): ARP331, NGC0373, NGC0375, NGC0379, NGC0380, NGC0382, NGC0383, NGC0384, NGC0385, NGC0386, NGC0387, NGC0388,

The Pisces Cloud is 29 galaxies in Pisces galaxy cluster though common usage seems to refer just to the C2 group which is Arp 331. How many galaxies Arp considered part of his chain seems to vary with the source. Most say the 8 listed below excluding 373, 375 and 388 but others say 12 or more. It just depends on when you stop counting and how far east or west of the bright vertical chain you venture. If those I list Seligman leaves out 373 saying it is too far west.

Hubble classed this group as "Group Character: Chains of galaxies". It is also known as Zwicky cluster 0107.5+3212. The chain is too large for the FOV of the 200" so the photo Arp uses comes from 48" Schmidt camera. It appears to be a very short exposure as it only picks up the cores of the galaxies making them look a lot further apart than they do in my image. Arp's comment: "Symmetry around large central galaxy." This may be a clue as to which galaxies he considered part of his object.

Galaxies north to south with discoverer and date of discovery. Galaxies north to south with discoverer and date of discovery. Independent redshift is noted by ind. RS indicates a redshift distance. Both are in millions of light-years.

NGC 379 S0 208 ind, 241 RS William Herschel September 12, 1784
NGC 380 E2 208 ind, 189 RS William Herschel September 12, 1784
NGC 383 SA0 LERG* 208, 220 RS William Herschel September 12, 1784
NGC 382 E, 234 ind, 226 RS Bindon Stoney November 4, 1850
NGC 387 (east of 382) no class no ind 202 RS Lawrence Parsons December 10, 1873
NGC 386 E3, no ind, 240 RS Bindon Stoney November 4, 1850
NGC 375 E2, no ind, 254 RS Lawrence Parsons December 1, 1874
NGC 385 SA0, 208 ind, 214 RS Bindon Stoney November 4, 1850
NGC 388 east of 385 E3, no ind, 235 RS Bindon Stoney November 4, 1850
NGC 373 E, no ind, 238 RS John Dreyer December 12, 1876
NGC 384 E3, no ind, 180 RS Bindon Stoney November 4, 1850

All carry this NED note:
Faint compact member of the Group C2 of elliptical galaxies forming one of the four prominent condensations.

So what about that lone spiral above NGC 375 (UGC 679). Include it and you get an even dozen that some writers say is the count. Oddly the MCG catalog lists it as being NGC 375! Is it a member of the group though not mentioned by Arp? Looks like it may be. NED says it's likely about 214 million light-years away, only about 6 million more than the rest, and redshift puts it at 220 million light-years which is in close agreement as well.

The image is full of orange "stars" that are really galaxies. For instance just off the east end of the blue spiral are two of these star-like galaxies. One is slightly above and left, it is very orange. A bit closer and below is a yellow-white "star" that is also a spherical galaxy. I have no redshift or other distance indicator but suspect they are part of the same group, just smaller members.

I had to move the field further north than I wanted due to the 6th magnitude star. When I centered everything it was out of the field but sending in some nasty ghosts. The only way to get rid of the worst of them was to move it into the FOV. For some reason, my filters scatter more green and blue than red light so even though it is a K0 star it has a rather cyan halo from the excess green and blue. I didn't try to fix this.

Many galaxies in the image I didn't mention had redshift data. All of which indicate they are members of this group. Far more either had no redshift data or weren't in any catalog. This area hasn't been covered by SDSS.

NGC 390 is just one of two stars I've listed as a double star in the annotated image. Guillaume Bigourdan saw it on November 19, 1884 recording it as "very faint, very small, stellar. Unfortunately, while these two stars are nearby his position fits neither well enough to tell which he was seeing. Most likely the upper one so that's where I put the label. It itself is a double star which might have made it appear slightly fuzzy. Some say PGC 4021 further east and a bit north is what he saw. That, though, just stretches the NGC position too much. Certainly doesn't fit his stellar description either.

Arp's image with the 48" Schmidt telescope:

*LERG stands for Low Excitation Radio Galaxy

14" LS200R @ f/10, L=5x10' RGB=2x10'x3, STL-11000XM, Paramount

Related Designation(s):

1RXS J010721.2+322254, 1WGA J0107.2+3229, 1WGA J0107.2+3231, 1WGA J0107.4+3224, 2MASS J01065822+3218304, 2MASS J01070592+3220531, 2MASS J01071569+3231135, 2MASS J01071759+3228585, 2MASS J01072394+3224144, 2MASS J01072498+3224452, 2MASS J01072501+3217339, 2MASS J01072723+3219114, 2MASS J01073132+3221429, 2MASS J01073306+3223278, 2MASS J01074715+3218358, 2MASX J01065819+3218304, 2MASX J01070592+3220534, 2MASX J01071567+3231131, 2MASX J01071757+3228581, 2MASX J01072493+3224452, 2MASX J01072503+3217341, 2MASX J01072723+3219112, 2MASX J01073133+3221432, 2MASX J01073307+3223282, 2MASX J01074719+3218352, 2MASXi J0106582+321830, 2MASXi J0107059+322053, 2MASXi J0107156+323113, 2MASXi J0107176+322858, 2MASXi J0107239+322414, 2MASXi J0107249+322445, 2MASXi J0107250+321734, 2MASXi J0107272+321911, 2MASXi J0107313+322143, 2MASXi J0107330+322327, 2MASXi J0107471+321835, 2XMM J010715.9+323114, 2XMM J010717.4+322858, 2XMM J010723.8+322411, 2XMM J010724.9+322444, 2XMM J010725.3+321733, 2XMM J010727.0+321912, 3C 031, 3C 031:[MLO2002] NED12, 3C 031:[MLO2002] NED15, 3C 031:[MLO2002] NED18, 3C 031:[MLO2002] NED19, 3C 031:[MLO2002] NED21, 3C 031:[MLO2002] NED23, 3C 031:[MLO2002] NED24, 3C 031:[MLO2002] NED25, 3C 031:[MLO2002] NED26, 3C 031:[MLO2002] NED27, 3C 031:[MLO2002] NED30, 4C +32.05, 87GB 010441.3+320821, 87GB[BWE91] 0104+3208, AGC 110036, AGC 110044, AGC 110047, AGC 111066, AGC 111068, ARK 026, ARK 027, ARK 028, ARP 331, ARP 331 NED01, ARP 331 NED02, ARP 331 NED03, ARP 331 NED04, ARP 331 NED05, ARP 331 NED06, ARP 331 NED07, ARP 331 NED08, ARP331, B2 0104+32, BMW-HRI J010716.2+323117, BMW-HRI J010717.4+322857, BMW-HRI J010717.8+322857, CGCG 0104.5+3213, CGCG 0104.5+3215, CGCG 0104.7+3201, CGCG 0104.7+3203, CGCG 0104.7+3208, CGCG 0104.7+3209, CGCG 0104.8+3205, CGCG 0105.0+3202, CGCG 501-081, CGCG 501-082, CGCG 501-084, CGCG 501-085, CGCG 501-086, CGCG 501-087, CGCG 501-088, CGCG 501-090, CGPG 0104.2+3203, CGPG 0104.3+3204, CGPG 0104.5+3213, CGPG 0104.5+3215, CGPG 0104.7+3201, CGPG 0104.7+3203, CGPG 0104.7+3208 NED04, CGPG 0104.7+3209, CGPG 0104.8+3205, CGPG 0104.8+3207, CGPG 0105.0+3202, CRATES J0107+3224, CRATES J010724.96+322445.2, Cul 0104+321, CXO J010717.5+322858, CXO J010723.8+322413, CXO J010724.9+322445, CXO J010725.1+321732, CXO J010727.2+321910, DA 035, EXSS 0104.5+3216, GALEXASC J010705.87+322053.4 , GALEXASC J010717.57+322857.9 , GALEXASC J010723.94+322414.8 , GALEXASC J010724.93+322445.4 , GALEXASC J010725.06+321733.0 , GALEXASC J010727.15+321909.6 , GALEXASC J010731.23+322141.8 , GALEXASC J010732.91+322328.2 , GALEXASC J010747.16+321834.9 , GALEXMSC J010705.90+322052.9 , GALEXMSC J010717.61+322900.2 , GALEXMSC J010725.01+321735.1 , GALEXMSC J010727.01+321906.0 , GALEXMSC J010731.18+322144.7 , GALEXMSC J010733.03+322328.1 , GALEXMSC J010747.20+321835.3 , HDCE 0053 NED004, HDCE 0053 NED005, HDCE 0053 NED006, HDCE 0053 NED007, HDCE 0053 NED008, IRAS F01045+3215, IV Zw 038 NED01, IV Zw 038 NED02, IV Zw 038 NED03, IV Zw 038 NED04, IV Zw 038 NED05, IV Zw 038 NED06, IV Zw 038 NED07, IV Zw 038 NED08, IV Zw 038 NOTES05, IV Zw 038 NOTES06, IV Zw 038 NOTES09, IV Zw 038 NOTES10, IV Zw 038 NOTES11, IV Zw 038 NOTES12, JVAS J0107+3224, KPG 023A, KPG 023B, LDCE 0074 NED023, LDCE 0074 NED024, LDCE 0074 NED025, LDCE 0074 NED026, LDCE 0074 NED027, LGG 017:[G93] 001, LGG 017:[G93] 002, LGG 018:[G93] 002, LGG 018:[G93] 003, LGG 018:[G93] 004, LGG 018:[G93] 018, LQAC 016+032 002, MAPS-PP O_0601_0551201, MAPS-PP O_0601_0658303, MAPS-PP O_0601_0659150, MAPS-PP O_0601_0659273, MCG +05-03-050, MCG +05-03-051, MCG +05-03-052, MCG +05-03-053, MCG +05-03-055, MCG +05-03-056, MCG +05-03-057, MCG +05-03-059, MG3 J010721+3224, NFGS 010, NGC 0373, NGC 0375, NGC 0379, NGC 0380, NGC 0382, NGC 0383, NGC 0384, NGC 0385, NGC 0386, NGC 0387, NGC 0388, NGC0373, NGC0375, NGC0379, NGC0380, NGC0382, NGC0383, NGC0384, NGC0385, NGC0386, NGC0387, NGC0388, NPM1G +32.0044, NPM1G +32.0045, NPM1G +32.0047, NRAO 0053, NSA 128547, NSA 128557, NSA 128568, NSA 128571, NSA 128580, NSA 128581, NSA 128582, NSA 128584, NSA 128587, NSA 128592, NSA 128600, NVSS J010725+322437, OC +307, PCC S34-111, PCC S34-111:[LLB96] 271, PCC S34-111:[LLB96] 304, PCC S34-111:[LLB96] 305, PCC S34-111:[LLB96] 306, PCC S34-111:[LLB96] 360, PCC S34-111:[LLB96] 361, PCC S34-111:[LLB96] 391, PCC S34-111:[LLB96] 392, PCC S34-111:[LLB96] 401, PCC S34-111:[LLB96] 402, PGC 003946, PGC 003953, PGC 003966, PGC 003969, PGC 003981, PGC 003982, PGC 003983, PGC 003984, PGC 003987, PGC 003989, PGC 004005, Pisces Cloud, Pisces Cloud NED01, Pisces Cloud NED02, Pisces Cloud NED03, Pisces Cloud NED04, Pisces Cloud NED05, Pisces Cloud NED06, Pisces Cloud NED07, Pisces Cloud NED08, RSCG 05:[WBJ2013] A, RSCG 05:[WBJ2013] B, RSCG 05:[WBJ2013] C, RSCG 05:[WBJ2013] D, RSCG 05:[WBJ2013] E, RX J0107.4+3227:[CAE99], SRGb 090.044, SRGb 090.048, SRGb 090.052, SRGb 090.053, SRGb 090.056, SRGb 090.057, SRGb 090.058, SRGb 090.059, SRGb 090.060, SRGb 090.062, SRGb 090.065, SSTSL2 J010715.68+323113.5, SSTSL2 J010717.60+322858.5, SSTSL2 J010723.90+322414.0, SSTSL2 J010724.94+322445.2, SSTSL2 J010725.01+321733.7, SSTSL2 J010731.28+322144.6, SSTSL2 J010733.04+322327.9, TXS 0104+321, UGC 00682, UGC 00683, UGC 00686, UGC 00687, UGC 00688, UGC 00689, UGC 00689 NOTES01, USGC U045 NED17, USGC U045 NED18, USGC U045 NED22, USGC U045 NED27, USGC U045 NED30, USGC U045 NED33, USGC U045 NED34, USGC U045 NED35, UZC J010715.7+323113, UZC J010717.5+322856, UZC J010724.0+322414, UZC J010725.0+321734, UZC J010725.0+322445, UZC J010727.3+321910, UZC J010731.3+322143, UZC J010747.2+321835, VERA J0107+3224, VV 193a, VV 193b, WBL 025-001, WBL 025-002, WBL 025-003, WBL 025-004, WBL 025-005, WBL 025-006, WBL 025-007, WBL 025-008, [B78a] 0104+322, [BO79] 010438.17+320814.6, [BO79] 010439.20+320846.0, [DSL2000] 0104+321, [HRT2007] J010726+322417, [JBB2007] J010724.95+322445.2 , [KWP81] 0104+32, [M98j] 014 NED01, [M98j] 014 NED02, [M98j] 014 NED03, [M98j] 014 NED04, [M98j] 014 NED05, [M98j] 014 NED06, [MLO2002] J010658.2+321830, [MLO2002] J010705.9+322053, [MLO2002] J010716.0+323112, [MLO2002] J010717.5+322856, [MLO2002] J010723.7+322414, [MLO2002] J010724.9+321731, [MLO2002] J010725.0+322447, [MLO2002] J010727.1+321912, [MLO2002] J010731.3+322143, [MLO2002] J010733.0+322327, [MLO2002] J010747.1+321837, [SLH97] Z01027, [SLH97] Z01030, [SLH97] Z01035, [SLH97] Z01035C1, [SLH97] Z01041, [SLH97] Z01043, [SLH97] Z01045, [SLH97] Z01046, [SLH97] Z01047, [SLH97] Z01049, [VE75] CL 0104+32, [WB92] 0104+3208,