Object name: NGC4402

Designation(s): NGC4402, NGC4406B, NGC4435, NGC4438, M086, IC3355,

NGC 4402 in the heart of the Virgo Galaxy Cluster is another spiral with its dust and gas being stripped by ram pressure due to its high velocity through the cluster's intergalactic medium. Like NGC 4522, the gas and dust are being blown upward -- actually left behind as the denser parts of the galaxy are little phased by the ram pressure). It may account for its curved dust lane as well. Even in my image the "lifting" of the dust in the dust lane due to ram pressure seems rather obvious having a 3D appearance. I didn't do any special processing, it just came out that way with my ordinary processing. The Hubble image and story about this is at .

Since this galaxy is located near Arp 120 (NGC 4435 and 4438) I framed it to include them. There seems to be some question if the two are interacting or not. One school says the relative speeds are so high they wouldn't be close enough for long enough to account for NGC 4438's tidal plumes. That school feels the plumes are due to ingesting a galaxy in the past. Though there's no sign of the remains of this galaxy.

The image contains many dwarf members of the Virgo cluster. The N in some of their classification means they are "nucleated", that is, have an obvious nucleus.

While I've included redshifts they are quite unreliable for this cluster. The members have high relative velocities making redshift a poor distance indicator. Some members have a blue shift others have such a low redshift the conversion to a distance is meaningless. I've included non-redshift estimates when available in parentheses. VCC entries are from the Virgo Cluster Catalog.

The other galaxies in the field make this one considerably more photogenic than was NGC 4522. To me, it's the idea that ram pressure can tear dust and gas right out a galaxy against its great gravity well that makes these "photogenic".

Edit: I need to add that NGC 4402 was discovered by Arthus von Auwers on March 5, 1862 or so many sources say. Others say he was just publicizing Stoney's discovery though the date is correct. Since it is easily seen in my 6" f/4 scope how was it missed all those years? Stoney was at Lord Rosse's observatory but used a 6.2" scope to find the galaxy.

NGC 4435 and NGC 4438 were discovered by William Herschel on April 8, 1784. Both are in the original H400 program. My only comment on it from April 20, 1985 with my 10" f/5 at 50x due to humidity limiting issues reads, "Forms a tight double with NGC 4438. Six other galaxies are seen in the same one-degree field of view." Nothing on the galaxy itself! My entry at the same time for NGC 4438 reads, "Large, highly elongated galaxy with a very irregular halo that stretches nearly to NGC 4435. M-084, M-086 NGC 4402, NGC 4413, NGC 4425 and NGC 4435 are all in the same field of view." Apparently, I was more taken by the field than the galaxy.

IC 3355 is a very blue irregular Magellanic class galaxy. Apparently, interaction with others in the area has triggered the formation of a lot of young blue stars. Arnold Schwassmann discovered it on November 17, 1900.

14" LX200R @ f/10, L=4x10' RGB=2x10' STL=11000XM, Paramount ME

Related Designation(s):

1ES 1223+132, 1WGA J1226.1+1256, 2MASS J12261174+1256464, 2MASS J12274049+1304440, 2MASX J12260756+1306460, 2MASX J12261181+1256454, 2MASX J12274050+1304444, 2MASX J12274565+1300309, 2MASXi J1227405+130444, 2MASXi J1227456+130031, 2MFGC 09794, 2XMM J122611.4+125648, 2XMMp J122745.6+130031, 87GB[BWE91] 1225+1316, ACSVCS 004, ACSVCS 019, AKARI J1226078+130647, AKARI J1227406+130447, AKARI J1227453+130029, ALFALFA 1-314, ALFALFA 1-315, ALFALFA 1-324, ARP 120 NED01, ARP 120 NED02, ASIAGO3 173, BMW-HRI J122611.1+125642, BMW-HRI J122612.6+125628, CGCG 070-071, CGCG 070-072, CGCG 070-085, CGCG 070-097, CGCG 070-098, CGCG 1223.6+1323, CGCG 1223.7+1314, CGCG 1224.3+1327, CGCG 1225.2+1317, CGCG 1225.2+1321, CXO J122611.83+125647.8, CXO J122611.9+125644, CXO J122740.46+130443.8, CXO J122740.5+130444, CXO J122745.6+130032, DDO 124, EVCC 0595, EVCC 0597, EVCC 0627, EVCC 0673, EVCC 2104, EVCC 2117, FAUST 3133, FAUST 3138, FAUST 3152, FAUST V051, FAUST V066, GIN 780, HDCE 0720 NED084, HDCE 0720 NED085, HDCE 0720 NED100, HDCE 0720 NED102, HOLM 403A, HOLM 403D, HOLM 403G, HOLM 409A, HOLM 409B, IC 3355, IC3355, IRAS 12235+1323, IRAS 12251+1321, IRAS 12252+1317, IRAS F12235+1323, IRAS F12251+1321, IRAS F12252+1317, ISOSS 046, ISOSS J12261+1306, ISOSS J12275+1307, KUG 1224+134, LDCE 0904 NED107, LDCE 0904 NED108, LDCE 0904 NED124, LDCE 0904 NED126, LGG 292:[G93] 040, LQAC 186+013 017, M086, MCG +02-32-044, MCG +02-32-046, MCG +02-32-056, MCG +02-32-064, MCG +02-32-065, MESSIER 086, MG1 J122745+1300, NGC 4402, NGC 4406, NGC 4406:[L2011a] X0001, NGC 4406:[LB2005] X01, NGC 4406:[LM2005] ULX01, NGC 4406B, NGC 4435, NGC 4435:[L2011a] X0001, NGC 4435:[LB2005] X01, NGC 4435:[RW2000] X-01, NGC 4438, NGC 4438:[LB2005] X01, NGC 4438:[RW2000] X-01, NGC4402, NGC4406B, NGC4435, NGC4438, NSA 141347, NSA 141415, NSA 141422, NSA 161740, NVSS J122607+130650, NVSS J122745+130031, PGC 040644, PGC 040653, PGC 040659, PGC 040754, PGC 040898, PGC 040914, RSCG 58:[WBJ2013] A, SDSS J122607.65+130647.9, SDSS J122607.71+130649.0, SDSS J122611.75+125646.3, SDSS J122740.46+130444.4, SDSS J122745.63+130031.7, SSTSL2 J122740.50+130444.4, The Eyes NED01, The Eyes NED02, UGC 07528, UGC 07532, UGC 07548, UGC 07574, UGC 07575, USGC U490 NED209, USGC U490 NED211, USGC U490 NED228, USGC U490 NED239, UZC J122607.7+130648, UZC J122611.9+125647, UZC J122650.9+131037, UZC J122740.5+130445, UZC J122745.7+130032, VCC 0873, VCC 0881, VCC 0882, VCC 0945, VCC 1030, VCC 1043, Virgo CLUSTER:[TT2002] 01, Virgo CLUSTER:[TT2002] 03, Virgo CLUSTER:[TT2002] 05, Virgo CLUSTER:[TT2002] 06, Virgo CLUSTER:[TT2002] 10, Virgo CLUSTER:[TT2002] 16, VPC 0452, VPC 0454, VPC 0455, VPC 0502, VPC 0542, VPC 0550, VV 188, VV 511, [AHG2014] B180, [BEC2010] HRS 149, [BEC2010] HRS 150, [BEC2010] HRS 162, [BEC2010] HRS 163, [dML87] 659, [FCJ2006] 004, [FCJ2006] 019, [GMM2009b] 43, [HRT2007] J122744+125947, [KK98] 122419.1+132715, [KK98] 146, [M98j] 104 NED12, [M98j] 104 NED15, [M98j] 174 NED109, [M98j] 174 NED92, [PJC2008] 004, [PJC2008] 019, [RG2008] J186.53189+13.11332 , [RG2008] J186.54898+12.94622 , [RG2008] J186.71307+13.17572 , [RG2008] J186.91862+13.07900 , [RG2008] J186.94014+13.00882 , [SLK2004] 0702, [SLK2004] 0707, [TH2002] 003, [TH2002] 025, [VCV2001] J122745.6+130032, [VCV2006] J122745.6+130032, [WB92] 1225+1316,